Applications of Adaptive Protection System (APS)The system provides the highest level of protection against smoke in horizontal and vertical escape routes in multi-floor buildings, e.g. residential buildings, offices, industrial buildings, shopping centres, dormitories, hotels, etc. It allows to select pressure depending on the building and provides 1-2 [s] reaction time after opening the door as well as very good adjustment results – from 1 to 3 [s] in both tight and non-tight buildings. Example reference buildings that employs the APS system to control aeration units and the spread of smoke Academy of Physical Education (Kraków) – 13-floor dormitory, a base-reserve system was used. The devices were connected to each other via fireBUS. This solution can be applied in any buildings to aerate, e.g.: - staircases of high and low cubic volume, up to more than a dozen floors high, - shafts of any cubic volume. Ikea (Wrocław) – Ikea store with an area of 37,705 m2, 6 staircases of high tightness and cubic volume. Individual elements of an APS system were installed: Mac-FC regulators (6 pcs), P-Mac sensors (6 pcs), power-control cabinets SZA-FC (6 pcs), TS control board, MSPU device to control the transmission and performance parameters. Malta House (Poznań) – 5-floor building with 15,000 m2 of office space. In this case, 2 separate aeration systems were used for 2 staircases of very high tightness. The pressure stabilisation times achieved after closing the door were 1.5 [s] to 2.2 [s].
The adaptive protection system (APS) is an innovative solution in the fire ventilation safety market. The system enables very accurate and stable distribution of excess pressure throughout the entire emergency exit staircase and meets all the requirements of EN 12101-6:2005. The APS system has a modular design – all system devices are interconnected with one transmission wire in a closed loop (fireBUS).
|ADVANTAGES of the APS System||Benefits of the APS System|
|Very high resistance to adverse effects of wind and stack pressure||Safety regardless of the changes in the external conditions. Innovative adaptive algorithm (based on a neural network) makes the system resistant to adverse effects related to wind pressure; eliminates the negative impact of stack pressure on the pressure distribution along the escape route; has a very high resistance to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations.|
|Independence from the variability of air leakage in the evacuation space||ZSignificantly lower costs of commissioning and adapting to the building. The system learns the building to continuously adapts to actual changes in air leakage e.g. due to changes in the structure or discrepancies arising from the design calculations. Virtually, there is no need for continuous tuning at the different stages of project implementation and during the subsequent operation.|
|Quick adjustment to dynamic changes in environmental parameters||Very quick adjustment to changes in the building. The system quickly adapts to dynamic changes in environmental parameters. It identifies the problems, diagnoses them and applies the appropriate response. Data acquisition: 20 times per second.|
|Resistance to chaotic changes during evacuation – adaptively applies the flow and pressure criteria||Outstanding operation during actual evacuation. Provides very high resistance to chaotic changes of situation during evacuation (opening and closing of escape doors); the system does not begin to oscillate.|
|Lower wiring costs||Significantly lower cost of system wiring. fireBUS communication protocol enables data transmission between the modules of the system via one communication loop, which significantly reduces wiring costs.|
|Flexible expansion of the system. Matching the needs||Comfortable matching to the needs of the designer/contractor/investor Modular design of the system provides the possibility of extension depending on the needs (customising depending on the needs).|
|Monitoring system components Saving tests: printing, verification of proper operation||Safety of operation Monitoring of the system allows to control the connection circuits and the current operating parameters. The APS system allows the user to save tests in the device memory and to print them. The system can be connected to the Internet or a mobile phone for remote diagnostics.|
|Wide range of operation||Fits both small and large buildings The system can be adapted to all types of buildings regardless of their height: residential buildings, offices, industrial buildings.|
|It does not require tuning||Lower costs of tuning the system to the existing building The algorithm continuously optimises the operation. It does not require adjustment after installation and after changes in the leakage (discrepancy between the actual and calculated values).|
A mathematical model of adaptation is the basis of the APS system. This model, basing on the recorded data, determines in real time the conditions in the evacuation staircase. The obtained accurate pattern of the current condition of the building is used for adaptive adjustment. The algorithm makes the system resistant to adverse effects of wind pressure and eliminates the negative impact of stack pressure on the pressure distribution along the escape route It has a very high resistance to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. The reliability and accuracy of the algorithm for pressure differential systems in escape routes has been confirmed by more than 5,000 hours of testing. Modern evacuation route safety systems are based on mechanical devices or a simple PID regulators. The adaptive model, created for the purposes of the APS system, greatly improves the quality of controlling systems for the removal of smoke from evacuation routes.
Laboratory of Industrial Aerodynamics
The unconventionality and reliability of the system is proven by 3 years of research and testing carried out by a team of professionals at Plum company and, primarily, by tests conducted by an independent laboratory – Institute for Industrial Aerodynamics in Aachen. The tests included the following:
- Dynamic behaviour test cycle
- Functional test: 20 full cycles of opening and closing doors
- Reliability test repeated 10,000 times
- Durability: test 20 full cycles of opening and closing doors
- Oscillation test: 10 unit tests, 20 cycles each, with open and closed air discharge opening
- Dynamic behaviour test: 20 dynamic behaviour cycles